Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Bush’s Environment Policy Essay

The bush’s environmental policy basically concentrates mainly on first improving the economic and military condition of the country and then tackling the problem of pollution and environment degradation. The United States of America under bush’s administration is a realist state. For a realist state, international security is one of the main aims. Therefore, his policies are more towards removing hurdles for military development. Plus, resources are scarce, and this is nothing hidden from anyone, and since America largely depends on these resources, Bush’s administrative polices are always up for projects for production of energy. I would not say that his policies are against the environment, they are just not for it. I, being an environmentalist at heart, strongly disagree with the current Bush’s administration policy. If the level of pollution emitted by industries does not go down, we have every reason to worry about our coming generations and our natural habitat. At the international level, environmental issues are what matter the most because if a country like America does not change its policies, it will become the strongest nation of the weakest world. The United States of America is one of the most influential countries globally and its decisions affect almost every other country in the world. The only solution for environmental protection is global governance. This means that a single individual or a single state cannot do anything about this issue if it wanted to. Because it is a universal problem and it affects the entire globe, every state must come together and do something about it. Economic growth and environment protection cannot go hand in hand and often are two aims that have conflicts. This is why every country must make a choice. If the most significant and dominant country does not make the ‘right’ choice of giving priority to environment over economic growth, we cannot expect any other country to cut down on its growth economically. A study carried out recently came to a conclusion, that at present, the United States of America is responsible for most of the pollution caused in the world today. According to a BBC report, it constitutes for 4 percent of the total world population and at the same time, it is responsible for 24 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions given out in the environment. (BBC News, 2002) Hence, it is no surprise to why the majority of opinions are against the bush’s administrative policies. As mentioned in the article, according to polls carried out in 2001 and 2002, even the majority of the American public does not want economic, resource and military growth if that means that their environment has to suffer. America also had to face large criticism for not being a part of Kyoto Protocol which could have been the closest solution to the problem of global warming. In conclusion, I would like to state, that Bush’s policies are not for people because the long term result of them is loss of environment that surrounds those people. It must realize the importance of the strong need for strict environment policies before it is too late. References BBC News, (2002) Q&A: The US and climate change from BBC News. Website: http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/americas/1820523. stm

American Writers Essay

ENG 4U1 – Film and Literature Comparative ISP Choose your ISP Topic below. For that topic, you must choose one corresponding film and one corresponding novel from the list below. You will then work towards completing a comparative analysis of the two chosen works. The steps of the ISP are as follows: U1A5 – Statement of Intent/ISP Proposal U2A6 – ISP Progress Report #1 (here you will review your ISP novel) U4A1 – ISP Annotated Bibliography U5A1 – ISP Progress Report #2 (here you will review your ISP film) U5A2 – ISP Thesis/Outline U5A4 – Final ISP Essay. ISP TOPICS FILM CHOICES NOVEL CHOICES Personal Liberation/Redemption Gran Torino Rocky Balboa Albert Camus, The Outsider Carol Shields, The Stone Diaries Ernest Gaines, A Lesson Before Dying Ian McEwan, Atonement Jane Urqhart, The Stone Carvers John Irving, A Prayer For Owen Meany Khaled Hosseini, The Kite Runner Margaret Atwood, Surfacing Margaret Laurence, The Stone Angel Miriam Toews, A Complicated Kindness Oscar Wilde, A Picture of Dorian Gray Roberston Davis, Fifth Business Walter Lamb, She’s Come Undone Destructive Nature of Dreams American Gangster. There Will Be Blood Brian Moore, The Passion of Judith Hearne F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby John Steinbeck, The Pearl John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men Mordechai Richler, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye Utopia/Direction of the Future Children of Men The Road Aldous Huxley, Brave New World Anthony Burgess, A Clockwork Orange Cormac McCarthy, The Road George Orwell, 1984 Margaret Atwood, Oryx and Crake Margaret Atwood, A Handmaid’s Tale Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 Journey Motif Rain Man Motorcycle Diaries  A. Manette Ansay, Vingear Hill Arundhati Roy, The God of Small Things Betty Smith, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Cormac McCarthy, The Road John Steinbeck, The Pearl Khaled Hosseini A Thousand Splendid Suns Khaled Hosseini, The Kite Runner Kim Edwards, The Memory Keeper’s Daughter Marina Nemat, The Prisoner of Tehran Paolo Coehlo, The Alchemist Salman Rushdie, Satanic Verses Sue Monk Kidd, The Secret Life of Bees William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying Destructive Nature of War Avatar The Hurt Locker Anne Michaels, Fugitive Pieces Denis Brock, The Ash Garden. Elie Wiesel, Night Ian McEwan, Atonement Joseph Boyden, Three Day Road Joseph Keller, Catch-22 Joy Kogawa, Obasan Laura Esquivel, Like Water For Chocolate Markus Zusak, The Book Thief Pat Barker, The Ghost Road Timothy Findley, The Wars Non-Conformist Hero Juno Iron Man Anthony Burgess, A Clockwork Orange J. D, Salinger, The Catcher in The Rye John Irving, A Prayer For Owen Meany Joyce Carol Oates, Foxfire Ken Kesey, One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest Kim Edwards, The Memory Keeper’s Daughter Mark Haddon, The Curious Incident of the Dog in  the Nighttime Miriam Toews, A Complicated Kindness Roddy Doyle. A Star Called Henry Sue Monk Kidd, The Secret Life of Bees Immigrant Experience Lost in Translation In America Anne Michaels, Fugitive Pieces Barbara Kingsolver, The Poisonwood Bible Brian Moore, The Luck of Ginger Coffey Frank McCourt, Angela’s Ashes Jane Urquhart, The Stone Carvers Joy Kowaga, Obasan Margaret Laurence, The Diviners Michael Ondaatje, In the Skin of a Lion Mistry Rohinton, A Fine Balance Nino Ricci, Lives of the Saints Role of Women Revolutionary Road An Education. Alice Walker, The Colour Purple Anita Diamant, The Red Tent Anne Marie MacDonald, Fall On Your Knees Arthur Golden, Memoirs of a Geisha Barbara Kingsolver, The Poisonwood Bible Bernhard Schlink, The Reader Frank McCourt, Angela’s Ashes Khaled Hosseini A Thousand Splendid Suns Kim Edwards, The Memory Keeper’s Daughter Margaret Atwood, The Edible Woman Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale Miriam Toews, A Complicated Kindness Sue Monk Kidd, The Secret Life of Bees Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye Wally Lamb, She’s Come Undone.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Premature Baby

A new medical practice for premature babies -Touching or No Touching- In the world, more than 300 thousand people are born in a day, but 10 percent of them are born as premature babies. The premature birth rate has increased by about 36 percent since the early 1980s, and many of them have died. Fortunately the good news is that the survival rate of the preterm has increased remarkably due to improvements in neonatology, such as using incubator transport. However, compared with in utero transport, incubator transport, based on separation between with mother and infants, is not natural thing, and it still has risks.Incubator transport for preterm still has some known disadvantages including infant instability by lack of adequate systems for securing the infant, and separation of mother and infant. Even though it has some risk, it has been known as an optimal practice for care of extensible number of premature infants. According to Statehealthfacts. org, in the United States in 2009, th ere were 502,306 preterm births born. This is 12. 2% of births in the United States, 2009. Table. 1 Number of births, number of preterm births, and preterm births as a percent of all births in the United States 2009 Normal full term babies are born at 38 weeks.Babies born before 37 weeks are defined as premature babies, and those born between 24 and 29 weeks are ‘extremely premature’. They usually have less weight than 1. 5kg (3. 3lb). And all babies born with less than standard birth weight, 2. 1kg (4lb) are at risk. Therefore, babies born early need special care and monitoring to help them to gain weight. To reduce disadvantages of incubators and improve care preterm babies, ‘Kangaroo care,’ a new medical practice for preterm babies, was introduced and being conducted in some united states medical facilities.Kangaroo care is also known as kangaroo mother care, kangaroo baby care, and skin to skin care. Although the name varies, the concept is that holding an infant, naked except for a diaper and hat, against the bare chest of an adult for the purpose of providing the infant with a natural thermal environmental, nurturing touch, and enhanced opportunity to breast-feed. â€Å"Although numerous studies have explored the value of kangaroo care for premature or stressed newborns, the literature informing the effects of kangaroo care to people is scarce† the study by Janice Collisons said.Mostly, the incubator as a present medical system is being used. The current predominant model of neonatal stabilization like incubators involves placing the infant in an open warmer immediately after delivery. This practice immediately separates the mother and infant during a crucial period of extra uterine adaptation, and may be a venue for delayed neonatal physiological adaptation, reduced breast-feeding, and impaired maternal infant bonding. The goal of my research is to know the benefits of kangaroo care as a stabilization method for preterm infants, and to figure out how it contributes the health of infants.In March of 2010, a mother gave birth to a premature infant son, named Jamie. She was told that the baby had died despite the best efforts of the medical staff. She was given a chance to hold and cuddle him on her chest in order to say goodbye. When placed on her chest, his breath began coming in short bursts, and his parents and the medical staffs were astonished when Jamie opened his eyes with stable breathing. Jamie is now a normal active 2 year old boy. What this mother and child experienced is kangaroo care because it is similar to the same care a baby kangaroo receives in its mother’s pouch.Doctor, Susan Ludington says â€Å"many people don’t understand this situation, but there are eight reports of other babies revived by kangaroo care. The mother can stimulate the baby to live. I think the Kangaroo care helped† In fact, this method had been used in Colombia. Due to increasing mortality r ates in Bogota, Colombia, in 1978, Dr. Edgar Rey introduced kangaroo care to alleviate the shortage of caregivers and lack of incubators. This care was found to be an inexpensive and very beneficial experience to babies in Bogota, Colombia.The mortality rate finally fell to 30 percent from 70 percent. Most studies have proven that Kangaroo care has positive impacts on babies and their parents; some studies have proven there is no change; but no study has proven that kangaroo care has hurt either parent or baby. By offering it to newborns, they have a stable heart rate, more regular breathing, improved oxygen saturation levels, no stress, longer periods of sleep, more rapid weight gain, and earlier hospital discharge. The first benefit of the kangaroo care is that preterm babies can have longer periods of sleep.Researchers have come a long way in determining the major cause of colic. The common conclusion in 1999 is that colic is caused by a baby’s inability to transition from one sleep state to another – like from an alert state into a sleep state and back again. Kangaroo care performed in a quiet, low light environment with any baby has been proven to reduce crying and help the baby learn to transition from one sleep state to another. A study done by Patricia Messmer in 1997 found a significant increase in sleep time for the neonates during Kangaroo care.The kangaroo care can relieve the pain of preterm babies during treatment such as blood test, injection of medication, and several physical tests which give significant pain to the babies. Because the premature babies are really vulnerable to surroundings, doctors need to take blood samples to check their health every day. They usually take 3cc amount of blood from the babies. The volume of blood drawn (3cc) from babies is proportionate to that drawn (400cc) from adults. How painful it is for the babies to stand.The experiment that measured the pain level to premature babies from the blood test was conducted while kangaroo care procedure. The result of the experiment showed that the babies felt less pain when they were on mother’s chest. According to the article ‘Kangaroo care is effective in diminishing pain response in preterm neonates’, it concludes ‘Kangaroo care was effective in significantly decreasing pain response on the behavioral components of a validated composite measure of pain in preterm babies.Given the many invasive procedures that are part of clinical care in preterm babies, KC may be a safe analgesic alternative in neonates in whom it is feasible and with mothers who are comfortable providing KC for painful events’ The newest studies that are being done in Sweden and other countries concentrate on full term babies in respiratory distress. They take these babies, who would normally be put on respirators, and place them on the mom's chest immediately after birth in the Kangaroo Care position. Babies stayed on mom until the r espiratory distress was gone – within 48 hours for most babies.Oxygen hoods and cannulas (small tubes) were used if needed. In preterm babies, the effects of Kangaroo Care on these functions are just as dramatic. In 1998, Dr. Susan found a four-fold decrease in apnea during Kangaroo Care and ventilated babies were able to tolerate transfer and position changes without increased oxygen requirements. In 1997, GM Cleary, et al concluded there was no increase in bradycardia(slow heart rate –below 60 beats per min) episodes during Kangaroo Care. In 1998, Gay Gale and Kathleen Vandenburg concluded that the heart rate was more regular for Kangarooed infants.All-in-all, the baby fared much better when placed in Kangaroo Care. â€Å"With my own ventilated preemie (1 pound 12 ounces at birth) I noticed a 50% reduction in oxygen requirements, no apneas, more stable heart rate, and more spontaneous respiration when I held her skin-to-skin. † Holly Richardson concluded that more rapid weight gain was observed in Kangarooed infants. Kangaroo care allows the baby to fall into a deep sleep by conserving their energy for far more important things. This increased weight gain also leads to shorter hospital stays.Kangarooed infants can have as much as a 50% shorter hospital stay than babies who are not kangarooed. This means less expense for the parents and children. In 1990, Dr. Susan Ludington demonstrated that mothers showed thermal synchrony with their babies. A recent study placed babies in Kangaroo Care position on the mother's chest and temperatures were taken periodically of both the mother's chest and the baby. The study revealed that when the baby got cold, the mother's body temperature would increase to ‘warm' the baby up. The reverse was also true.Given a suggestion of â€Å"Your baby looks warm to me† by a nurse, the mother's chest temperature would decrease within minutes to compensate. Extra blankets and monitoring of baby's temper ature might be needed when Dad or others practice Kangaroo Care, but in 1997, Karl Bauer wrote that one hour of skin-to-skin contact (Kangaroo Care) was no cold to preterm infants. In 1998, Papi A Gomez found infants in Kangaroo Care for more than 50 minutes were 8 times more likely to breast feed spontaneously. Kangaroo Care allows for easy access to the breast, and the skin-to-skin contact increases milk let-down.A receiving blanket, strategically placed to catch extra milk is extremely helpful – especially if the baby is unable to breast feed. Otherwise, some doctors argue that there is risk of a bacterial infection if vulnerable infants come out from incubators. However, by using kangaroo care the immunity of premature babies is built up so they are not easily affected by any bacterial infection. Why? It’s because of the breast milk, containing lymphocytes and macrophages that produce antibodies. The kangaroo care facilitates an easy access breast feeding for both moms and babies than incubators.As long as mothers are in good health and can produce healthy breast milk, the premature babies’ immune system will develop. Richardson proposed that brain development is more rapid in the baby who benefits from Kangaroo care. Her research reveals that ‘alpha waves double in a baby being â€Å"kangarooed† versus a baby in an incubator. Alpha waves are the brain wave patterns associated with contentment and bliss. Delta brushes are a pattern formed when tracking brain activity that represents the creation of new neural synapses.Delta brushes are higher during Kangaroo care than during incubator care. ’ Through some cases and studies, kangaroo care can contribute to give an efficient treatment, as well as a miracle revival, to premature infants as long as it comes into wide use in a medical institution rather than using of artificial facilities which give stress to vulnerable infants. These benefits of kangaroo care are basica lly from mother’s love and communication. The incubator transport may give the stable care to the babies but it’s not perfect and not natural to them. It cannot be compared with mother’s bosom.Some hospitals, combining both this touching system and the incubator, experience the positive results from the kangaroo care. However, there is still a huge lack of the knowledge of the kangaroo care. How to encourage people to know about the kangaroo care? Telling is the best way to spread it out to people. When people become parents with knowledge of the kangaroo care, they may use this touching in their home. It’s easy for every parent to use. Parents should know that their love and touching are what vulnerable babies need, not a cold and impersonal facility.Bibliography Articles Barb Morrison. â€Å"Kangaroo Care: ‘Natures Best for our Little Ones’† (2006) Web Feb 22. 2012 <http://www. preciousimagecreations. com/presentations/kangaroocar e. pdf> Maria Blois. â€Å"Hold Me Close: ‘Encouraging essential mother/baby physical contact’† (2007) Web Feb 22. 2012 < http://www. babywearinginternational. org/Blois_research_summary. pdf> Dieter Sontheimer. â€Å"Kangaroo Transport Instead of Incubator Transport†(2004) Web Mar 11. 2004 < http://pediatrics. aappublications. org/content/113/4/920. full > Celeste Johnson. Kangaroo care is effective in diminishing pain response in preterm neonates† (2003) Web Mar 11. 2012 < http://archpedi. ama-assn. org/cgi/reprint/157/11/1084 > Leornard A. Herzenberg. â€Å"Soluable CD14 enriched in colostrum and milk induces B cell growth and differentiation† (2000) Web Mar 20. 2012 <http://www. pnas. org/content/98/2/603. full> Books Ludington-Hoe. â€Å"Kangaroo Care: The Best You Can Do for Your Premature Infant. † New York: Bantam Books(1993). Web Feb 22. 2012 Bergman. â€Å"Kangaroo Mother Care†. Geddes Product ions (2003). Web Feb 22. 2012 Web Mhaire Fraser. Mom Uses Kangaroo Care to Revive Child Pronounced Dead. † Care2 Make a Difference. Web. 22 Feb, 2012 Holly Richardson. â€Å"Kangaroo Care: Why Does It Work? † Midwifery Today. Web. 22 Feb, 2012 Krisanne Larimer. â€Å"Kangaroo Care Benfits† Premature Baby. Web. 22 Feb, 2012 Kaiser Family. â€Å"United States: Number of Birth, 2009† â€Å"United States: Number of Preterm Births, 2009† â€Å"United States: Preterm Births as a Percent of All Births, 2009† Statehealthfacts. org. Web Mar 14, 2012 Jane Sheppard. â€Å"Breastfeeding for a strong immune system†. Web. 20 Mar, 2012 Rebecca M. Pugh. â€Å"Supporting the birth that is right for you†. Web. 20 Mar, 2012

Monday, July 29, 2019

Analysing the effect of long working hours in Hong Kong's clothing Research Paper

Analysing the effect of long working hours in Hong Kong's clothing retail industry - Research Paper Example This paper will examine the current state of the work of employees in the clothing industry and will show how this is currently affecting those who are subjected to long working hours and the inability to take off more time for family. There will also be an association with how the longer working hours change the effectiveness of the organization and the ability to create sustainable development because of individual complexities from the longer working hours. 1.1 Statement Problem and Rationale The problem with long working hours in Hong Kong is now considered at an epidemic level, specifically among the apparel industry. The demands that are a part of the competition have created the specific problems with the industry because of the amount of competition and the need to remain a priority among Western demands. This is combined with the long working hours becoming socially and culturally accepted to stimulate the economy without having political recourse or labor intensive laws tha t change the main attributes within the industry. The working hours are intertwined with the individual, family, organization and overall apparel industry, making the issue complex with finding policies and standards among a culture. The physical and mental health of employees is first affected. However, the long working hours often don’t change because the inability to produce in a highly competitive environment may become detrimental. The image, reputation and the high performance levels expected then begin to affect the company. This complexity makes it difficult to carry through with specific standards and policies that would demand ethics sand the reaction within the culture provides several problems that are a part of the long hours. The need to alter the standards and understand the detrimental effects of longer working hours is one that is intertwined with the individual outcomes, family problems and the corporate changes that don’t provide the correct affiliat ion with building into the economy with ethical considerations in mind first. Understanding how each area is affected by the longer working hours and what this leads to can then help those working in the fashion industry to begin to change ethical standards and find different alternatives to compete with human resources. 1.2 Investigative Questions The problem with the working industry is one which is defined specifically by the inability to change the needs of employees who are expected to work long hours. The investigative questions asked in this study include: 1. What are the impacts of long working hours on individuals and families in the Hong Kong clothing retail industry? 2. What are the main influences of the long working hours on organizations in the Hong Kong clothing retail industry? 3. What measures can be taken to prevent and relieve negative effects of LWH in Hong Kong clothing retail industry? 2.0 Literature Review The problem with long working hours is one that begins by impacting the individual then moves into the associations with the organization. While higher amounts of productivity are expected with longer working hours, there is also the impact that is made on the organization that

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 4

Psychology - Essay Example Therefore, evolutionary theory becomes a theory of context and environment, so that the psychology of an individual is to be understood by taking into consideration the environment the individual lives in - past, present and future, as well as the changes that have occurred in this environment over a period of time. Culture is viewed as no more than the constantly changing social environment that reflects the changing perspectives of groups of individuals over time. Within the environment, organisms are competing for resources, however when employing an evolutionary perspective, it is not natural selection that determines which individuals will survive. The approach that can be employed is that certain kinds of individuals or patterns can be reproduced within a particular kind of environment. Hence, the evolutionary paradigm does not embark upon the study of an individual’s mind with any preconception about normalcy based upon what is considered to be natural, but as a factor of his or her environment, examining what factors shaped the individual’s past and present environment and what elements of the future environment are likely to shape the individual’s being, state of existence and manner of thinking. For example, in the context of the attachments that an individual has with others, Fonagy et al (2000) offer the view that attachment patterns may reflect environmental conditions, such as the low level of correlation between an infant’s attachment to its mother as opposed to its father. Montague et al (2003) examined attachment patterns and the imposition of punitive measures through withholding of attachment in both African American children and European American children, and noted while the environment of the former produced increased sel f reliance, the latter revealed a more negative effect of such withholding of affection, thereby indicating that changing environmental and other trends could play a

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Concert Report Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Concert Report - Movie Review Example When the conductor emerged as well, glorious clapping for a minute gave way to absolute silence in preparation for the first movement. It seems as though people who frequent classical music performances always know when to clap to respect the performers. This probably comes through knowledge and experience of the work, knowing the interludes and spaces in between the movements. The concert hall was comparable to a large church in size and was composed of wood paneling, high ceilings, and a large gold decorative piece behind the performers. On both sides of the stage was seating for patrons, and in front of the stage sat a row of flowers that gave way into a sea of interested listeners. The echo of the music was wonderful coming from the ceiling and the walls, as well as the audience applause. In part, knowing that people have gathered in venues like this concert hall and enjoyed this kind of music for hundreds of years contributed to the pleasure of attending the concert. The work I enjoyed most was Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 8 in F Major. Because Beethoven was important in the transition from the Classical and Romantic eras of classical music, the symphony shares characteristics of both periods in the same musical composition. The composition is airy, light, and fanciful; it has many contrasts and variations. In this way, it exemplifies the characteristics of the Classical era. However, in spite of these Classical characteristics, the work is also emotionally expressive, with many highs and lows, and it displays a certain style that makes it immediately identifiable as a Beethoven symphony. In this respect, it follows the Romantic tradition. These two identities cannot be easily resolved or separated, which complicates the classification of the work as either distinctly Classical or distinctly Romantic. This composition is my favorite precisely because it is so varied and so difficult to define exactly in terms of where it belongs in Beethovenà ¢â‚¬â„¢s repertoire, let alone the history of classical music. The movements are different from one another, which makes the performance not repetitive, but continuously exciting in that the piece is always developing upon itself, always expanding in its complexity and never contracting. The first movement in the piece, for instance, has its climax in an unusual place. It is not during the development section, as is customary in Beethoven’s works, but at the start of the recapitulation phase. There is a substantial crescendo as the start of recapitulation. This variability and uniqueness in the piece makes it one of my favorite sonatas, particularly in the Beethoven corpus. The instrumentation for the Ninth Symphony is quite large. From one count, there were two flutes, two clarinets, two oboes, two bassoons, two trumpets, four horns, timpani, and some strings, which is a relatively large group of instruments. Both as a conductor and as a composer, it must be difficult to man age that many performers. However, utilizing a large number of instruments is an important part of achieving complexity in one’s artistry. A polyphonic performance like the one put on by the performers invites complexity more than any other kind of texture. In terms of the mood conveyed by the piece, it seems like most people were emotionally affect at some parts. Being such an artistic composition, and having very high and

Friday, July 26, 2019

The American Health Concerns Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The American Health Concerns - Essay Example It is the responsibility of the individual citizen to take care of the personal health. It is not the responsibility of the medical field, the government or the corporate American that shares the blame. It has been noted with serious concern that many Americans are physically inactive, spending many hours watching TV or with computers for leisure activities, doing school work, or working from the computer. Choosing to drive short distances instead of walking is another contributing factor. Modern technology, which minimizes physical demands, can also be a massive factor. The individual should carry the blame, although not in all health cases. There are other significant health issues that the government should take the blame. Quite a sizeable number of the United States citizens have complained the failure of the government, in ensuring proper and effective medical checkup. Some citizens have reported going to the hospital, for medical attention, only to go back home and attended mai nly due to insufficient medical personnel, or pure negligence from doctors. The government has also failed in public health initiative that is aimed at improving and protecting the general health. The public health initiative should be carried out through a promotion of improved healthy lifestyle, extensive research for diseases and prevention. A lot of unregulated food supplements have found their way in the market, and it is my observation that this is a failure by the government to protect public health.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Objective of Investment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Objective of Investment - Essay Example Investors now believe that real estate is an important investment opportunity and increasingly investors are investing in real estate (IPF, 2007). There are fluctuations not only in the asset or equity markets but even real estate investment have their own fluctuations as well. So, it is important for investors to analyze the rise and fall in the market of real estate. Therefore considering the changes in the market, the report aims to understand how the commercial property business operates as an investment and analyze the internal and external factor that influence the prices of properties. The main the purpose of the report is to understand how to maximize income on properties through purchasing the right product at the right time and how the capital value is influenced by that. The second part of the statement  will identify how to maximize the revenue in term of capital value and income revenue through ‘ProActive‘ Management, it will provide further knowledge towar ds the way management overall affect or improve the value of a property. Investment in commercial properties is defined as buying and purchasing of commercial properties with the objective of earning returns or buying commercial properties for the purpose of renting it. Adair et. al (2009) have published a report in which the properties of United Kingdom has been analyzed and from the analysis, it has been found that the value of the commercial properties in the  UK accounts to  £762 billion. However, the value of the residential properties is equal to  £3,400 billion. From the  £762 billion invested in the commercial properties, it has been found that almost 90% of the investors or owners of the properties are using their properties with the aim of achieving returns by giving their properties for rent to the tenants.

Family nurse practicioner Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Family nurse practicioner - Essay Example 1). There are several universities that offer a Family Nurse Practitioner Program (FNPP). According to US News and World Report in 2011, the top five graduate schools for FNPP include: 1). University of California- San Fransisco (UCSF); 2) University of Washington; 3) University of Pennsylvania; 4) University of Michigan – Ann Arbor and;5) Columbia University. In UCSF, their Master of Science Program for FNP is a full-time, two-year course study. As an additional requirement, one is eligible to take up the course if he or she has at least 2 years of experience working as a Registered Nurse (RN). UCSF also offers a 5-6 quarter Post-Master’s option for those want to obtain FNP certification. This includes all clinical and specialty core courses. Year 1 will cover clinical practicum while Year 2 will focus on residencies that will provide supervised clinical experience (UCSF 1). As a specialty healthcare provider, the primary role of a certified FNP is to meet the healthcare needs of the individual and family though comprehensive primary care provision within their lifespan. Other roles and responsibilities of a certified FNP includes: 1) diagnosing illnesses; 2) prescribing medication and therapy; 3) conducting routine check-ups; 4) ordering patient lab tests; 5) assisting in minor surgical procedures; and 6) focusing on disease prevention through their independent work as well as collaboration with other primary care clinicians, healthcare and social service professionals (Johnson & Johnson, Inc.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Protein Diet in Athletes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Protein Diet in Athletes - Essay Example The muscle growth depends on the balance between protein synthesis (anabolism) and protein breakdown (catabolism). Exercise affects this balance and for activities that cause muscle hypertrophy, the anabolic process must exceed the catabolic process. In highly physically active individuals, proteins enhance nitrogen retention and prevent protein catabolism during prolonged exercise. Besides, they prevent sports anemia and resynthesize muscle glycogen after exercise. The balance between anabolic and catabolic processes in the body can be determined by the essential amino acid, leucine. A positive leucine balance indicates the presence of the acid in the cells that favor protein anabolism. Decrease in amino acid availability due to low protein intake increases muscle protein catabolism while increased amino acid availability stimulates muscle protein synthesis and greater muscle anabolism. Hormones such as insulin and testosterone also play a role in muscle protein synthesis and hypert rophy. After exercise, insulin inhibits further muscle protein breakdown, and when small amounts of amino acids are ingested with carbohydrates, transient muscle protein anabolism occurs since carbohydrates restore supply. Amino acid supplementation and impact the athlete’s performance No consensus has been reached on the role of amino acid supplementation on athlete’s performance. Williams (2005) noted that when branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation is used before and after exercise.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The History of Hospitals, Delivery of Inpatient Services Essay

The History of Hospitals, Delivery of Inpatient Services - Essay Example The agencies of the Public Health Service are the Health Administration, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Prevention, the Agency of Health Care Research and the Agency Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Wherever numerous publicly funded health care programs help to provide for the elderly, disabled, military service families and veterans, children, and the poor and federal law ensures public access to emergency services regardless of ability to pay, however, the main goal wasn't implemented. Significant goal was approached through Massachusetts, implementation of a near-universal health care system by the Massachusetts 2006 Health Reform Statute, mandating that residents purchase health care coverage with little or no control over how much the health insurance policies cost. Problems as rising cost have been contributed by increasing per capita spending by an aging population. One reason for this is the large number of babies born in the lost years and so contribution was increasing expenditure. Another thing is that try improving health care on old population has tended to delay the onset of serious illness and high health care expenditures and medical malpractice; also, resulting defensive medicine has slight contribution of care cost. And so the need of health care system on an aging population has been established since 1960 through Medicare, provider of health care insurance for all Americans age 65 and older. It covers hospital care and physician fee and prescription drug benefits. Medicare takes important steps to reduce long-term health care cost through providing up-to-date preventive benefits and programs that lower overall cost for benefices with chronic illness by preventing complication. Also development of better information on quality and costs of health care through implementation of competitive reforms in durable medical equipment. But Medicare funding has issued warning when financing will exceed 45 percentage of total expenditure with seven years. Such a warning triggered an expedited process to reduce general revenue financing, in which the President is required to propose legislation to address the issue in the next Budget, and Congress is required to consider the proposal on an expedited basis. So crises will run in 2018 because the hospital insurances will run of money. Most health economist believe that the primary causes of increasing spending of health care is development of new technologies, try which could be established improvement of patient care. Estimating the efforts on overage the benefits are expending opportunities of effectiveness of care. Physicians, nurses, and other health profession hospitals and manufactory of pharmaceuticals and device and researches are key input into the health care system. Right investning in any of them can establish effective health care system or effective key output. The pharmaceutics and the medical device industry are most impotent aspects of modern health care system and so supply many of the products are most responsible for improvement on public health, such as medication and devices such as joint replacement and artificial lenses. The developing and the right marketing are the right way to established effective health

Monday, July 22, 2019

Supply chain Essay Example for Free

Supply chain Essay INTRODUCTION The operation plays key role in firms because it affects operation managers understand their customers and translate their customers needs into performance objectives. In turn, the performance objectives (and especially the relative importance of each one) influence the overall operations strategy of the business. (Slack et al., 2010,) The reason is that managers can based on performance objectives to do decision because it is reflection of corporation strengths and weaknesses. This essay will describe the Toyota Motor Corporation performance around five-performance objective: quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost. Then following discussion of how Toyota uses techniques in operation management to achieve the five objectives. Based on analysis, some suggestions for this firm will shows in the conclusion. FIVE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES IN TOYOTA As most successful car manufacturer in the world, Toyota is a few automobile companies that able to be stockless production system by its unique operational management systems, the most famous Toyota Production System (TPS) and Just-In-Time (JIT). Further, in terms of five performance objectives, which Toyota did quite well in the overall circumstances, especially in the cost, speed and flexibility areas. Toyota cooperation was chosen to analysis because its significant performances and great operations management. Organizations can respond to the performance objectives, but the real challenge is to offer better quality, speed, dependability and flexibility at lower costs than the competition. (Slack et al., 2007) Also, the aim and objective of Toyota is making low-cost, high-efficiency, high-quality production to maximize customer satisfaction and keeping strong competitiveness. (Toyota, 2011) QUALITY Quality can be defined as specification of a product or service, also meaning high specification and must satisfy your customers by providing  error-free goods and services, which are fit for their purpose. (Pycraft, 2000) The external affect of good quality within in operations is that the customers without (or less) complain leading to customers more likely to consume again because the customer feel has received real value for money. This brings in more revenue for the company. For internal influence, conformance quality is high that generally means that cost is saved, dependability increases and speed of response increases. If an operation is continually correcting mistakes, it finds it difficult to respond quickly to customers requests. (Slack et al., 2010) SPEED Speed indicates the time between the beginning of an operation process and its end. (Greasley, 2010) More specific, that means the elapsed time between a customer asking for a product or service and getting it with a satisfactory condition. (Slack et al., 2010) Externally affect of speed is important because it helps to respond quickly to customers and resulting customers return with more business. The internal side have much to do with cost reduction. Usually, faster throughput of information (or customers) will mean reduced costs via reduces the need to manage transformed resources as they pass through the operation and helps to overcome internal problems by maintaining dependability. DEPENDABILITY In terms of dependability, is usually means being on time, in other words, keeping delivery promised to the customer that receive their products or services on time. (Slack et al., 2010) Also, dependability is other half of total delivery performance along with delivery speed and always linked in some way. In externally influence, dependability as good thing for customers also enhances the company product or service in the market, or at least avoids customer complaints. Internally dependability has affect on cost via saving time, saving money directly and giving an organisation the stability that allows it to improve its efficiencies. Moreover, it prevents late delivery slowing down throughput speed. FLEXIBILITY Flexibility always means being able to change the operation in some way, vary or adapt the operations activity to cope with unexpected circumstance or to meet customer requirements gives a flexibility advantage to customers. (Slack et al., 2010) Flexibility has several specific types: Product or service flexibility; Mix flexibility; Volume flexibility and Delivery flexibility. For external affect, the different types of flexibility allow an operation to fit its products and services to its customers in some way, such as produce wide range and frequent new products or services. On other hand, Volume and delivery flexibility adjust its output levels and its delivery procedures in order to cope with unexpected changes. The internal influence is speeds up response, saves time (money) and helps maintain dependability. COST Produce goods and services at a cost, which enables them to be priced appropriately for the market while still allowing for a return to the organization. (Slack et al., 2010) not surprisingly, low cost is a universally attractive objective because lower cost means higher revenue and more competitiveness. If managed properly, high quality, high speed, high dependability and high flexibility can not only bring their own external rewards, they can also save the operation cost.(Greasley, 2010) FIGURE 1: INTEGRATION IN FIVE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Reference: Slack el at, 2010. Chapter 2: _The strategic role and objectives of operations_, Operations management. From figure 1 and unique Toyota Production System, which shows the company five-performance objectives irrelative significantly with each other. As Toyotas mainstay, quality is the most emphasize element of this company. According to the relevant survey institutions that indicates Toyotas  vehicles consistently rank near the top in third-party customer-satisfaction. (Toyota, 2012) Excellent quality of Toyota not only prevents errors slowing down throughput speed, also avoid wasted time and effort, therefore saving cost. For instance, if there occurs many non-value-added activities that mean the company need use time, money and human resource to solve it and increase cost. Also, if quality is not qualified in the produce process then rework will drag on production speed. According to survey data from relevant agencies, the three giants in US, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, parts procurement costs higher than Toyota 8%. Alternatively, Just-in-Time (JIT) stockless production system is extremely increasing Toyota productivity, which means the speed of production is fast. High speed helps Toyota maintaining dependability via zero (less) inventories because the company can respond to the market quickly. Toyota is a dependable company resulting by TPS (Toyota production system) with multi skilled worker that work as a team, and with control has allowed them to deliver products as promised. On the other hand, be more dependability can increase speed without late delivery and saving cost. In addition, For Toyota plant, flexibility means the ability to produce new products and offer wide range volume. During these years, Toyota has provided a wide range of options cars, such as SUV (Prado, RAV4), hybrid fuel (Prius,Yaris Hybrid) , commercial vehicle, sports car(GT86) and bus et al, also to meet environment and economic changes, Toyota was the earliest car maker to introduce hybrid fuel cars, with the commencement of Prius model. The high flexibility leading to Toyota brings frequent new products to the market to gain more competitiveness. Moreover, the speed from JIT system makes Toyota more flexibility in volume. TECHNICS IN TOYOTA Currently, the main competition between enterprises is from supply chain. The world famous TPS strategic management is also created by Toyota. It is called a variety of small amount of production of the unique market demand in Japan. From mass production of the highly formative changed to be a variety of small amount of production, to completely eliminate waste, improve production efficiency and cost competitive. For example, to increase  production, one person can do kinds of multi-skilled jobs (Kawada Makoto, 1993) Figure 2: TPS Structure JIT JIDOHKA According to Figure 2 indicates that TPS is comprised of two pillars, JIT and Jidoka (automation). Bicheno (1991) states that JIT aims to meet demand instantaneously, with perfect quality and no waste. Three key issues identified by Harrison (1992) as the core of JIT philosophy are: eliminate waste, involve everyone and continuous improvement (Kaizen). JIT approach, through rational design for make the product easy to produce and easy assembly. Essentially, just in time manufacturing consists of allowing the entire production process to be regulated by the natural laws of supply and demand. Customer demand stimulates production of a vehicle. In turn the production of the vehicle stimulates production and delivery of the necessary parts and so on. The result is that the right parts and materials are manufactured and provided in the exact amount needed. Under just in time the ultimate arbiter is always the customer. This is because activity in the system only occurs in response to customer orders. In order to support its JIT system, Toyota needs to ensure that the supplier in accordance with the cost, quality and timeliness, with on time delivery and production, stringent quality control system to help Toyota to reduce inventory, also minimize scrap production, and reduce non-value-added operations to increase quality, save cost and respond market immediately by decrease lead time. It also played an important role to ensure working capital is fully available that make the company be more flexibility to explore new production. (Kawada Makoto, 2004) Moreover, JIT emphasis on total preventative management (TPM), developed by total quality management (TQM). Toyota insists to regular maintenance activities, periodic inspection to equipment to avoid breakdowns and preventative repairs. Attention to the detection and control of each process, ensure found quality problems in a timely manner, immediately stop  produce until resolved. On other hand, TPM encourage all employees involved and use their knowledge to improve performance. (Greasley, 2010) In Japanese jidoka simply means automation. At Toyota it means automation with a human touch. The most visible manifestation of automation with a human touch is using andon cord situated in the line to intervene any abnormalities occur. KANBAN One system for implementing a pull system called a kanban production system. (Greasley, 2009) Kanban is the core in the JIT and it does not work without Kanban manage method. A kanban is simply a message. For example, in the assembly shop this message takes the form of a card attached to every component that is removed and returned when the component is used. The return of the kanban to its source stimulates the automatic re-ordering of the component in question. This system permits greater control over production as well as inventory via efficiency maximum. In Toyota process of produce, kanban is intended to convey information: what is needed when it is needed, and in the amount needed!(Lowson, 2002) The accurate number of parts allocation to avoid waste in the production process, thereby improving the manufacturing speed. KAIZEN / CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT Kaizen is the heart of the Toyota Production System. The day-to-day improvements that Members and their Team Leaders make to their working practices and equipment are known as kaizen. This is simply common sense since it is clear that inherent inefficiencies or problems in any procedure will always be most apparent to those closest to the process. The sense of continuous improvement also can influence Toyota performance, such as quality directly. (Iyer, 2009) Overall, TPS use JIT to eliminate inventory and develop close relationships with suppliers, eliminate all but value-added activities, reduce the number of job classes and build worker flexibility, apply Total Productive  Maintenance (TPM) to increase productivity and ensure quality, thereby obtain faster produce speed and improve productions; avoid waste time and resource to reduce cost; Regards to integration of these five performance objectives, faster speed and low cost resulting to Toyota becoming more dependability and have enough capital to be flexibility. When a company can respond the customer required immediately that means it could be depend. Refers to the flexibility, when Toyota have large amount capital then the firm could use on the production innovation to explore more cars types to offer the market and develop cars capability to increase quality of productions. (Greasley, 2010) CONCLUSION In conclude, Toyota has good performances on speed and quality, thereby promoting the dependability to the customer, also this firm did great on the flexibility because Toyota keep introducing new types of car. The interrelationship between these performances takes a significant benefit for save cost, for instance, faster speed means efficiency to save time and labor source to avoid waste. Although Toyota is extremely successful carmaker, but the recall events in 2009 caused great impacts for it. The reason is the company eagers to rapid expand to the market, the quality of management and personnel training has not been followed up, and then resulting series of parts defects. Moreover, in terms of excessive cost cutting, cause quality of components cannot guarantee. There have four suggestions for Toyota to developing performance: Firstly, Toyota in order to reduce expenditure in research and development via using general parts and components, but the manager have not realize technical innovation is the most important mean to reduce the cost of doing business, promote new products, the company should focus on technology innovation to be more efficiency and flexibility. Secondly, Toyota enterprises should pay more attention on After-sales service, the cost of these services is much lower than the recall and increase the sense of dependability to Toyota, such as Toyota car examination and driving lessons for free. Thirdly, Toyota need to strengthen the staff training to avoid the quality defects occurs in  the process of produce line. Thus, not only can ensure the cars quality and save cost without deal with the consequence from employees non-value-added activities. Finally, the company should increase more quality testing sections to examine new productions repeatedly. In general, the speed of produce car is quick resulting the production line easily ignore the nature of Toyota quality. Increase the quality inspection to insure Toyota manufacture superior products, which enhance the company production quality and dependability. As we known, quality is everything, if the company to seek a long term development then should be offer good products, not just focus on how to save cost thereby supply defective to the customer. REFERENCE: Iyer, A., 2009. _Toyota Supply Chain Management: A Strategic Approach to Toyotas Renowned System_.pp.95-99 Harrison,A. ,1992. Philosophy and core techniques, TIME†¬: Greasley, A., 2010. Lean Operations and JIT, _OPERATIONS MANAGEMTN_ pp. 348-365 T. Gabriel, J. Bicheno, J.E. Galletly, (1991) JIT Manufacturing Simulation, Industrial Management Data Systems, Vol. 91 Iss: 4, pp.3 7 Kawada Makoto.1993. _Why And How, Management Accounting_, Strategic Management Accounting Kawada Makoto.2004. Toyota System And Management Accounting. Publish: Central Economic, China. Lowson, R., 2002. Lean production and just-in-time, Strategic Operations Management. PP.457 Pycraft, M., 2000. _OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT_, pp. 48. Slack N., Chambers, S., Johnston, R., 2010. _OPERATIONS_ _MANAGEMENT._ Slack, N., 2007. _OPERATIONS, STRATEGY AND OPERATIONS STRATEGY,_ pp.24 Toyota, 2011. _Toyota Global Vision Mission Statement Announced._ Available at: Toyota, 2012. _Global sustainability reports_ [pdf] Available at:

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Case Study: Bipolar 1 Disorder

Case Study: Bipolar 1 Disorder This case study provides a brief profile of a client referred to as B, followed by an initial diagnosis of B according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR). A discussion of the diagnostic criteria, as applicable to Bs profile is provided and the incidence, course, and outcome of the disorder presented. Bs Profile Bs full profile is presented in appendix 1, but a brief outline of his primary symptoms follows. B is a 40-year old male from a wealthy background. He has a very close relationship with his mother, who struggles with depression. His father has no mental illness and denies that his son does. However, B describes severe episodes of mania, where he becomes involved in impulsive and excessive behaviours such as spending large sums of money or travelling to other countries. He also describes a manic thought pattern, characterised by an influx of ideas that he feels he must act upon. In contrast, B finds that once these episodes disperse he is left with feelings of depression, low self-esteem, and lack of energy. Initial Diagnosis Using DSM-IV-TR, an initial diagnosis for B can be found in the category of mood disorders. In particular, B meets the criteria for Bipolar Disorder, which can be divided into three types: Bipolar 1 Disorder is when the primary symptom is manic or rapid (daily) cycling episodes of mania and depression. Bipolar 2 Disorder is when the primary symptom is depression accompanied by mild manic episodes that are not severe enough to cause marked impairment in functioning. Cyclothymic Disorder is when there is a chronic state of cycling between manic and depressive episodes that do not reach the diagnostic standard for Bipolar Disorder. According to this criteria, Bs diagnosis is that the Bipolar 1 Disorder, whereby manic episodes are characterised by a period of abnormally and persistently elevated mood lasting at least 1-week and where the following symptoms have persisted and been present to a significant degree: increased self-esteem and grandiosity; flight of ideas or subjective experiences and thoughts racing; increase in goal-directed activity socially and occupationally; and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences. Such manic episodes are usually followed by the symptoms characteristic of a major depressive episode, which comprises depressed mood and a loss of interest and pleasure in activities that are usually enjoyed. These symptoms last for at least 2-weeks and cause clinically significant impairment in daily functioning. The following symptoms are also present: fatigue or loss of energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; and indecisiveness. B describes episodes of mania that are amazingly intoxicating and give him lots and lots of pleasure and lots of energy and ideas. This energy and abundance of ideas is transferred into Bs work, in part accounting for his professional success, which in turn provides the wealth that supports his manic episodes. For example, B states that During my worse manic periods I have flown from Zurich to the Bahamas and back to Zurich in 3 days to balance the hot and cold weather carrying  £20,000 worth of $100 notes in my shoes. He also describes an array of excessive behaviours likely to have negative consequences, including a  £25,000 shopping spree and a 4 day drug-binge. B further describes the fluctuating intensity of the symptoms of Bipolar Disorder, which comes in different strengths and sizes, expressing that most days I need to be as manic as possible to come as close as I can to destruction, to get a real good high. There is, however, the inevitable crash. This is when B experiences symptoms of depressive episodes when My mind grinds to a halt; I lost all interest in friends, work, eating, drinking, bathing, everything. This is accompanied by a deflation in his self-esteem, accompanied by feelings of inadequacy. Causes of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder is highly genetic. Indeed, Bs mother has depression and his maternal uncle is described as being highly creative and eccentric. In one study assessing the genetic and environmental contributions to the development of Bipolar Disorder, first-degree relatives of people with Bipolar Disorder (n=40à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹â€ 487) were at significantly increased risk of developing the disorder (Lichtenstein et al., 2009). Heritability has been estimated to range from 59-80%, the higher percentage being obtained from studies of genetic twins (Kieseppa et al., 2004; Lichtenstein et al., 2009). Despite the strong genetic aspect of Bipolar Disorder, the evidence shows that life events, coping skills, and family environment also contribute to symptoms. Bipolar Disorder is not only exacerbated by negative life events, but can also cause them. Indeed, B describes how his cycling moods affect my work and personal relationships and everything around me. His father, who denies that his son has any problems does refer to youthful scrapes that B found himself in during his early teens; signs of Bipolar Disorder often manifest in the adolescent years or early adulthood (Akiskal et al., 2000). Bs fathers denial of his sons diagnosis, which he explains as being high spirits and letting off steam as opposed to any abnormality, raises the question as to how abnormal behaviour is defined when making a diagnosis. The general consensus is that abnormal behaviour deviates from some norm and harms the affected individual or others. This could be a statistical deviation or a deviation from an ideal mental health, as highlighted within conceptual definitions of abnormal behaviour (Sue, Sue Sue, 2006). In terms of statistical deviation, B does present with abnormal behaviour as Bipolar Disorder has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1.3% in adults, as indicated by worldwide epidemiological studies (Maj et al, 2002; Kleinman et al., 2003). Treatment of Bipolar Disorder Treatment is usually a combination of psychological input and pharmacotherapy, with the aim being to reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of manic and depressive episodes. In some instances, hospitalisation with intensive pharmacological treatment is required to stabilise a person with Bipolar Disorder. Treatments are also often aimed at treating co-morbidities, which are frequently found in people with Bipolar Disorder, where excess behaviours such as binge eating, drinking or drug taking can lead to obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and drug addiction (Morriss Mohammed, 2005; Strudsholm et al., 2005). In one study, 81% of people with Bipolar Disorder also had co-morbidity (Fenn et al., 2005). Psychological treatments with empirical evidence supporting their efficacy include interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT; Frank, 2005), family-focused therapy (Miklowitz et al., 2003), and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), all of which encourage the use of medication alongside the psychological treatment (Mansell et al., 2007). IPSRT focuses on training people with Bipolar Disorder to regulate disruptive sleep patterns, which can cause more frequent mood cycling. It also targets issues around daily routines, stress, and interpersonal relationships. CBT, on the other hand, targets the cognitive issues associated with cycling moods, such as over-optimism, feelings of grandiosity, and goal-oriented thinking, all of which can contribute to risky behaviours. Family-focused therapy provides a combination of psycho-education, where the main goal is to teach people with Bipolar Disorder and their families about the nature of the illness and how family dynamics can help or hinder life with Bipolar Disorder. This might be particular relevance to Bs situation since his father remains in denial of his condition and his mother also struggles with depression and has done for a number of years. First line medication is usually lithium, anticonvulsants, or atypical antipsychotics, but it has been found that some people benefit from thyroid augmentation, clozapine, calcium channel blockers, and electroconvulsive therapy (Gitlin, 2006). Some female patients may benefit from hormonal treatments for mania or hypomania, such as tamoxifen or medroxyprogesterone acetate (Kulkarni et al., 2006). The combination of psychological treatment and medication is designed to treat the specific episode of mania or depression, but the objective also needs to be to produce a treatment plan that assists in managing the condition long-term. Conclusions In conclusion, B has been diagnosed with Bipolar 1 Disorder, as indicated by the DSM-IV-TR. In Bs case the condition is likely to be caused from both genetic factors and environmental circumstances, since depression and eccentricity have been reported in his family and his successful career and subsequent wealth provide opportunities that exacerbate the excessive nature of manic episodes. The most efficacious approach to treating B is likely to comprise both psychological and pharmacological approaches. In particular, B is likely to benefit from family-focused therapy that might address his mothers depression and his fathers denial of his diagnosis. Cognitive-behavioural therapy is also likely to provide B with coping tools for when his cognitions are influenced by manic or depressive episodes. It would also be wise to assess for any co-morbidities that need treating as B does refer to drug binges and excess eating and drinking during manic phases. The overall aim of treatment needs to be to provide the foundations for long-term adjustment to living with and managing the condition. Should Children Be Taught Sex Education? Should Children Be Taught Sex Education? Introduction: Sex relationship education (SRE) in schools which often is seen as inappropriate by parents to teach children at a very young age whereas some may agree to the idea of teaching sex education to children at a young age. Some part of the world it seemed to be appropriate. Sex in general is taboo in western society (Alldred, 2016) and a topic not talk about to children even though it is a beneficial topic which have both positive and negative impact on a child`s developing this is why some parents do not want their children to be taught in school at a young age. (ibid) In some places children are not being taught sex education and in more places than ever before including music videos and social media is playing a big part. Children who were taught at a very young are more aware of birth control and how to protect themselves from any harm of disease. This following assignment will explore on the history of sex education, children`s rights to sex education as well as the positive and neg ative impact on whether sex education is taught in schools from young age and onwards. History From the parents perspective, sex education should not be taught in schools this often involved protecting children from the knowledge of sex even throughout history the idea of children being innocent and vulnerable is not new and this dates back to the period of the 7th century onwards. During this time according to Rousseau (Marshall, 1994) all children were born naturally good and innocent with the need to be protected. This is because of the construction of childhood as we still tend to protect our children from the knowledge of sex people used to have a negative message a child who knows anything about se is not innocent he or she is more likely to be corrupt or wicked. (Cited in the British Library, 2016) This was further supported by Robinson, 2013 that a child seeming to have a good understanding about sexuality is seen as non-innocent or even a corrupted child. Positives People often misunderstand the word sex education wrong, it does not necessarily mean sexual intercourse. In fact, sexuality is more about self-image, developing your own identity, gender and learning about your choices and boundaries limitation as well as to protecting yourself from any harm. (Collective Evolution, 2016. While protecting our children can have both positive as well as negative site throughout their life however their health and well-being are at forefront. Therefore children who were taught at a young age are aware of birth control and are less likely to avoid teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections then those who were taught at later age are more vulnerable to pregnancy and only a two-fifths are aware of birth control (Marsiglio and Mott, 1986). Not always has sex education be harmful to the child`s development, as a research has shown according to NSPCC, 2016 one of ways to prevent all these negative impact is to start talking to your child at a very young age even in the house. By starting talking while they are still in primary school this will also develop their understanding of sex as well as encourage to ask question. Not only does sex education gives children a better understanding and knowledge about it as well as where babies come from but also helps them to protect themselves from any harm (Roleff, 1999). Current law and law in general Sex and relationship education is currently compulsory in United Kingdom from age 11 onwards. It includes teaching children about sexuality and sexual health as well as reproduction. It does not involves early sexual activity (DFEE 2000). But only few parts are compulsory which covers the national curriculum for science, parents have the option to withdraw their children from some parts or if they wish all parts of the sex and relationship education if they wish. To make sure the parents understand that the choice to withdraw their children from that lesson, all school must provide a written policy on sex education which should be access able to all parents for free (ibid). Which is also stated in the Education Act 1996 in section 405 and yet sex education is seen as something bad but the current law in the UK which allowed to have sexual intercourse at the age of 16 years to protect the children to have sex under the age of 16 years old. Any type of sexual connection under the age of 13 years is prohibited to have any sort of sexual activity. This way the current law is protecting the children from any abuse and it is important for a child to understand how to protect themselves and have the right to say no (NSPCC, 2016). The current situation in the United Kingdom is children still dont have the right to sex education, schools have to cover the biology part human body and parents have the right to withdraw their children from that on lesson (DFEE 2000) additionally, children do not get the opportunity to get sex education lesson at home and if they do it is not same as the school.The reason behind is that majority of the parents and educator find this topic difficult to teach children (Welsh, 2001) these difficulties simply leads back to the history as well as the culture as it always has been a taboo topic and that is why they are finding difficult and due to the society we are living is playing a big part too (Robinson, 2013). Negative impact Most parents do not think sex education should be taught to children in school from a young age. Parents are also against the limitation of sex knowledge regarding their child due concern that it could lead to explorations into more details concerning sex, child being excited into learning about their sexuality too early, exploring beyond limit that could leading to graphics. (Roleff, 1999) reason behind this is that children who did not had sex education in school are more likely to be the one who are lack of knowledge as well as misunderstanding and unnecessary of fear. (ibid) Conclusion: Although sex education is seen as a negative topic even throughout the history as well as the culture view of point and the society we are living is playing a big part. But has both negative and positive impact on a child`s development. Research has shown that children that were taught sex education in school at a very young age are more aware of birth plan, teenage pregnancy as well as abuse. I personally agree with the Netherlands and other part of the European country that our children should have the right to sex education and encourage them to ask question for their understanding which is also a part of their development then those who did not had sex education are more likely to be the one who are vulnerable and luck of knowledge and skills which also can lead to low esteem and confident. As this education will prepare them to a mature adult life having knowledge about it and be able to protect yourself and not doing anything without your will. Even though parents often refuse to let their children be taught in school, schools are responsible to provide these kind of lesson for the children in school. Therefore I believe sex education should be taught in schools for many reason as mentioned for both positive and negative site. Reference list: Haydon, D. (2002) Childrens rights to sex and sexuality education in Frankin, B.  (2002) The handbook of childrens rights Jenks, C. (2003) Childhood. London,  Routledge DFEE (2000) Sex and Relationships Education Guidance (2016). Convention on the Rights of the Child. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. Collective Evolution. (2016). In the Netherlands Sex Education Starts in Kindergarten: Heres What They Tell Them & Why. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Dec. 2016]. The British Library. (2016). Perceptions of childhood. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. Marshall, J. (1994). John Locke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marsiglio, W. and Mott, F. (1986). The impact of sex education on sexual activity, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy among American teenagers. 1st ed. Guttmacher Institute. NSPCC. (2016). Healthy sexual behaviour in children and young people. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Dec. 2016]. Alldred, P. (2016). Get Real About Sex. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Dec. 2016]. Roleff, T. (1999). Sex education. 1st ed. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press. Robinson, K.H. (2013), Innocence, Knowledge and the Construction of Childhood.  Abingdon: Routledge.

Jesus Dual Nature Are Divine And Human At Once Religion Essay

Jesus Dual Nature Are Divine And Human At Once Religion Essay Being one of the enigmatic figures in history and in the Bible, the person of Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity, the Son or the Word of the Father. More importantly, he is characterised by his dual nature which are divine and human at same time. Despite the trend of a new quest for the historical Jesus by Kasemann in 1950-1980s, this paper will mainly focus on the biblical interpretation of Jesus as Christ of Faith. Hence, this paper will concentrate on how Jesus was portrayed in the Bible and in Christology (from Greek christos) and who Jesus Christ is from a theological perspective. At the end of this essay, I will deal with the implications of the Christian doctrine on the person of Jesus. Jesus himself suggests his pre-existence in a number of texts in the New Testament. He said he had glory with the father before the world was (John 17:5), which implied his existence prior to all things.  [1]  The prophecies on Christ in the Old Testament encompass his birth place, the fact that he would be born of a Virgin Mother, death and resurrection. It must be noted at the first place that Jesus is not half God and half man; instead, he is fully divine and fully man at the same time, i.e. he has a dual nature. He is not merely a human being who neither had God within him nor is he God who manifested his principle through a physical person, rather, the two distinct natures co-exist and unit in the person of Jesus, which is also called the hypostatic union.  [2]   Jesus is represented as the seed of the woman, the son of David and the prince of pastors. The following features demonstrate Jesus inherent humanity: he was called man (Mark 15:39; John 19:5), has a body of flesh and bones (Luke 24:39) and was tempted (Matt. 4:1). He had human emotions such as distress and sorrow; he was equally subject to hunger. More significantly, he had a human soul (Luke 23:46) and died. I shall leave the issue of the son of man and resurrection of Jesus later in this paper. For the present, it seems self-evident that Jesus identified himself with men and was truly man. He was explicitly named the servant who offered himself for the sins of the entire world, suffered and sacrificed himself as the One representing all human beings. This fully human aspect of Jesus received support from arianism and ebionitism, which viewed Christ as a man born naturally, but was rejected by docetism arguing that the human features of Christ were mere appearances.  [3]  The G nostics also denied to Jesus a true human nature. Nonetheless, the above views were both rejected at Church Councils and the idea of the union of the two separate natures in one person was upheld. Besides this emphasis on Jesus true humanity, there has always been stressed that he was sinless. In this sense, he was distinguished from other human beings and he could not be simply said to be the wisest or greatest man at his time, as he was fundamentally different from his fellows (1 John 1:9). The deity of Christ: the divine and transcendent aspect of Jesus Despite the emphasis on Jesus true humanity, there is little doubt about the divinity of Christ. It was clearly taught in the Bible that Jesus was regarded as more than human: he was called God (John 20:28) and Son of God (Mark 1:1), was worshiped (Matt. 2:2) and honored the same as the Father (John 5:23), was omniscient (John 21:17) and resurrects (John 5:39). Son of God, Son of Man Being called the Son of God and Son of Man in the New Testament, Jesus seemed to receive these titles so as to fulfil a messianic purpose. Jesus does not refer to himself as the Son of God, rather, he was named so by the heavenly voice at his baptism.  [4]  The term was also frequently used in the Pauline gospels. This title is clearly connected to a messianic purpose: whilst accepting it, Jesus assumed to be the Son of the Father become One with the Father both in activity and will (i.e. the rightful Son in nature, whereas men can only become sons of God by adoption). Hence, he assumed his roles of saving and judging. More interestingly, in the gospels of John, he equally referred to himself as the Son of Man. It seems that this enigmatic title was mainly used in three different contexts: 1) to address the prophet Ezekiel (e.g. Ezekiel 2)1 to refer to humanity in general and his humility (Psalm 8:14) to refer to a figure representing the end of history.  [5]  Hence, it seems that he used this title when he emphasised his authority and power of judging. Lord The statement Jesus Christ is Lord (Greek kyrios, Hebrew adonai) is frequently used in the New Testament: Thomas called the resurrected Jesus My Lord and my God! (John 20:28), so does the Father: Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever. (Hebrews 1:8).  [6]  Interestingly, McGarth noted in her Christian Theology that in Torah readings, Lord had become synonymous with God in Jewish thinking by the time of Jesus, which might justify Jews refusal to address the Roman emperor as Lord.  [7]  Thereby, Jesus is more than a charismatic figure but the saviour of the world (Luke 2:1); people could pray to him as they would pray to God and worship God. More importantly, Jesus received honor and glory from the Father and reveals the Father: Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. (John 14:9) (329-330) Word In the expectations of classical wisdom, Jesus is not only considered as fulfilment of the Law, but also as the logos (word), i.e. the mediator between the seen and unseen worlds.  [8]  In the gospels of John, Jesus is described as the Word who was God and was with God and was made flesh, (The Word became flesh (John 1:14), which confirms again the intrinsic dual nature in the person of Jesus. The incarnation and three offices of Christ The threefold office of Christ was first formulated by John Calvin as (1) Prophet; (2) Priest, and (3) King.  [9]  Different from the prophet in the traditional sense, Jesus is both gave revelation from God and was himself revelation from God  [10]  , and this may explain why the title of prophet is absent in the epistles. As an unconventional priest, Jesus fulfilled his office by offering himself as sacrifice for peoples sin. In his role of King, he reveals God to men (John 1:18); saves sinners (Gal 1:4) and judges men (Acts 17:31), accomplishes Gods work including saving (Matt 1:23), raising the dead (John 5:25) and building his church (Matt 16:18). He rules over the entire universe with wisdom and justice, and shall return as the King of Kings (Rev 19:16). Resurrection The resurrection which was recorded in all four gospels remains as a debatable topic in Christology: how to understand that Jesus rose from the dead, physically in the same body in which he had died? Should we interpret the word resurrection in a physical sense or a spiritual one? Despite the earlier doctrine of soteriology which consists in regeneration of individuals, it now seems appropriate to say that the testimony of Jesus resurrection by the disciples (Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have. Cf: Luke: 24:36-43) only confirms a faith in Jesus resurrection that had its origins in independent acts of divine revelation.  [11]  Scholars such as R. Bultmann argue that the disciples experience is too supernatural to be ascertainable, whereas K. Barth and S. Kierkegaard argued that the resurrection was merely literal in the Bible and could not be experienced by ordinary human beings and can only be accepted by faith alone.  [12]   Although it is difficult to reconcile the interpretation of Christs resurrection as a bodily one in the early Christian doctrine, it must be recognised that this interpretation is core to Christian ethical life and reflects the hope that Jesus as the Son of God and the King of Kings will return with great glory to rule over the cosmos, judge the dead and establish his kingdom (Rev 19:11).  [13]   Implications of the doctrine It appears that the interpretation and understanding of Jesus in the Bible and Christology have various ethical ramifications. As what you believe affects what you do, the life of Jesus and his self-sacrificial love provides the reader with ethical teaching and affects his whole life. As H. R. Mackintosh rightly pointed out: When we come to know God in the face of Jesus Christ, we know that we have not seen that Face elsewhere, and could not see it elsehow. Christ is the Way, the Truth and the Life, and there is no door, nor way, leading to the Father but by him.  [14]   (Word count: 1655 words)

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Single nucleotide polymorphisms and recombination rate in humans :: Biology Genetic Diversity

Humans have many of the same genes but also a lot of genetic variation. Therefore, gene sequencing is different in everyone. This genetic variation determines a person's eye color, hair color, and other traits. However, this is also why some people get diseases and others don't. In a chromosome, the distance from the centromere dictates the rate of recombination. There is less shuffling in the area around the centromere, so that leads to less variation. However, understanding variation is necessary in order to determine abnormal genes. A single gene is the basis for identifying the abnormality. By looking at non-random sites with gene differentiations, one can determine the gene that causes the disease. There is more variation in regions with recombination, which happens in meiosis. The rate at which the crossing over occurs varies, and this affects the variation present. Shuffling is not the only determinant for variation in a gene. Selection also plays a role. For example, A gene is superior to B gene. C gene is connected to A gene through genetic hitchhiking. If A gene is selected over B gene, C gene is also expressed frequently. This is known as genetic hitchhiking. A biological application of this is the malaria gene. The colorblindness gene is hitchhiked onto the malaria resistant gene. Therefore, when a person receives the malaria resistant gene they also receive the colorblindness gene. As a result, colorblindness occurs more frequently in places where malaria is affluent because the people who don't receive the malaria resistant gene die and the people who are resistant and colorblind live and pass on their genes. Implications The main implication of this experiment is that comparing the differences in the various genotypes of humans can illustrate genetic diseases. For example if a subject has a certain genetic disease, this paper states that you could compare the afflicted subject's genome to an unaffiliated person's genome and determine the location of the disease on the chromosome. If the location of genetic diseases are found then it is conceivable to screen fetuses for genetic diseases. This brings up ethical issues, would you want to know if your child has an incurable genetic disease? If genetic diseases are detected in a fetus then it may be possible to someday perform gene therapy. Gene therapy is the treatment of a genetic disease by providing patients with cells containing harmless and functional alleles for genes that are nonfunctional in their bodies.

Friday, July 19, 2019

College Admissions Essay: My Days as a Gardener :: College Admissions Essays

My Days as a Gardener    'Mom, how do you make a garden?'    'You plant seeds. You can buy them at the nursery.'    'Can I plant a garden?'    Now this is the kind of question a mother wants to hear from her children. Not 'Can I play on the interstate?' or 'If I eat this will I die?' Something, instead, wholesome and good. An activity that not only teaches, but puts fresh produce on her table.    It was decided, then, that planting a garden would be my summer project. My mother and I planned for it to be located behind our garage, in a sunny area of our otherwise shady backyard. With my mom's help, I planted an assortment of vegetables: tomatoes, onions, potatoes ('A potato is a tuber.' 'It's a what?'), and green beans.    I later understood that gardening is generally associated with a life of leisure, with relaxation. For me, it was a competition. I'd ask my seedlings, 'Who's growing the fastest?' 'Who's the tallest?' Fearing bad karma, I tried to stay impartial, lest a subconscious preference for green beans would cause me to water them more often, while dumping bleach on the onions. Every night I'd give my parents an update on rates of growth, any signs of produce, and my never-realized irrigation plans.    One day my mother told me that some of the tomatoes were ready to be picked. We went out back, snagged a few of the plumper offerings, and that evening had salads.    Every other bite earned an accolade. 'Mmm. These tomatoes really are delicious.' 'There's just nothing like fresh tomatoes. Mmm.' 'I think we can quit saving for his college; he's a natural migrant worker.' Whatever that meant, it sounded promising. I told my family that they needn't worry: the garden was in full-swing, and that meant more fresh produce was on the way.       About a week later a tornado razed a better part of North Houston. It brought rain. It brought hail. It upended cars; it flooded houses. And in its trail it left fallen branches and trees, and removed, in whole, one tiny tomato-onion-potato-and-green-bean garden located behind my garage.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Chanel Essay -- essays research papers

CHANEL  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel was born in Saumur, France in 1884. Vogue Magazine referred to her as â€Å"the couturier who takes no account of fashion, who pursues her own faultlessly elegant line in the quiet confidence that fashion will come back to her - and sure enough it always does.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Chanel began designing heavily during the 1920s. Her first outfits were wool jerseys, and were very simple. She became famous for the simple look of her extremely classy outfits. Chanel stayed away from the vivid colors of many of the other designers of the time. Instead, she used blacks, navy, and tan almost exclusively. Unlike many designers who primarily made dresses and suits, Chanel also designed jackets, hats, and costume jewelry. When presenting a show, she did not have to accessorize her models with designs from other houses. Chanel designed well into the 1930s, but was forced to close her house during the years of World War Two. In 1954, she was able to reopen, and she designed until she died in 1971.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Chanel was one of the most influential designers of the twentieth century with a non-conformist and classical streak. Coco designed the definitive women’s suit, wore masculine clothes, sported a cropped haircut and flaunted a suntan when it was considered to be an symbol of the working class. In 1916, she outraged the fashion industry by using jersey at a time when it was strictly associated with... Chanel Essay -- essays research papers CHANEL  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel was born in Saumur, France in 1884. Vogue Magazine referred to her as â€Å"the couturier who takes no account of fashion, who pursues her own faultlessly elegant line in the quiet confidence that fashion will come back to her - and sure enough it always does.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Chanel began designing heavily during the 1920s. Her first outfits were wool jerseys, and were very simple. She became famous for the simple look of her extremely classy outfits. Chanel stayed away from the vivid colors of many of the other designers of the time. Instead, she used blacks, navy, and tan almost exclusively. Unlike many designers who primarily made dresses and suits, Chanel also designed jackets, hats, and costume jewelry. When presenting a show, she did not have to accessorize her models with designs from other houses. Chanel designed well into the 1930s, but was forced to close her house during the years of World War Two. In 1954, she was able to reopen, and she designed until she died in 1971.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Chanel was one of the most influential designers of the twentieth century with a non-conformist and classical streak. Coco designed the definitive women’s suit, wore masculine clothes, sported a cropped haircut and flaunted a suntan when it was considered to be an symbol of the working class. In 1916, she outraged the fashion industry by using jersey at a time when it was strictly associated with...


There are many conspiracy theories concerning the life and death of Tupac Shakur. Tupac Amaru Shakur was an American rapper and actor. Tupac was born New York, New York, United States on 16 June 1971. His birth name was Lesane Parish Crooks. Tupac was killed on September 13, 1996, in Las Vegas, Nevada. There have been many different stories about his death. People say he is still alive and then people said he is dead. There have also been people saying his death was caused because of his music and the Illuminati killed him.Various conspiracy theorists throughout the public believe that the Illuminati killed Tupac because he was exposing them and also not promoting the ideals that they desired. The ways Tupac exposed the Illuminati was one way by his lyrics in his songs, for example: in one of his songs it says: â€Å"im seeinin’ demons hittin’ weed got me hearin’ screams† scared to go to sleep, watch the scene like a dope-fiend peobably be punished for it (exposing the Illuminati), thiugh you can’t ignore it.I live the life of a thug nigga, and die for it niggaz pass the clip and watch me bring em to the floor I got some shit that they ain’t ready for (what you got? ) I got the secretz of was† (about the illuminati). Another example of how Tupac exposed the Illuminati in his lyrics is another song he wrote, he said: â€Å"Busters dhot me five times, real niggaz don’t die cant ya hear me? Laced with this game, I know you fear me spit the secret to war, so (Illiminati) cowards fear me my only fear of death is renicarnation heart of a solider with a brain to teach your whole nation (about the illuminati) And feelin no more pain. Another example of how Tupac exposed the Illuminati was by using symbols in his music videos, album cover pictures, and etc. Illuminati symbols are branched across numerous things you come across in your everyday life. The pryamid, the â€Å"all seeing eye† (of Horus or Lucifer (Represents the knowledge Lucifer gave to the secret Societies)), the using of the devil horns with your hands, the flashing if a 666 by using the symbol for â€Å"okay†. Tupac’s final album was called: The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory. The theme of all the songs had to do with the Illuminati.Before going to prison, Tupac was conveying the ideals such as â€Å"thug life,† drinking, having sex, and other ideals that the people wanted to hear. Tupac had been to jail many times before. In 1995, Tupac lost his temper when he was cut from a film and was arrested when he assaulted the film's director. Also, in 1995, a jury convicted him of sexual abuse and sentenced him to four and a half years in prison. After eight months in prison Shakur was released when Suge Knight, head of Death Row Records, paid his one-million-dollar bail.After the last time he got out of jail, he was more of a Christian came out of prison as a changed man. In 1994 Tupac was against the Illuminati’s concepts also. Tupac started promoting more positive ideas very effectively due to the amount of respect he gained. He was then considered a threat to the Illuminati leading people to believe that this may have led to the Illuminati plotting his death. The development of the Illuminati was founded on May 1, 1776, in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria) and became known as the Order of the Illuminati, with an initial membership of 5, by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt (d. 830), who was the very first lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt. It was made up of freethinkers as a descendant of the Enlightenment and appears to have actually been modeled on the Freemasons. The Illuminati’s members took a vow of silence and pledged obedience to their superiors. Group members were split into 3 primary sections, each with a number of qualifications, and lots of Illuminati chapters drew membership from other Masonic lodges. (Illuminati History) Originally Weish aupt had planned the order to be named the â€Å"Perfectibilists†.The group has also been called the Bavarian Illuminati and its ideology has been called â€Å"Illuminism†. Many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted themselves as members, including Ferdinand of Brunswick and the diplomat Xavier von Zwack, the second-in-command of the order. The order had branches in most European countries: it reportedly had around 2,000 members over the span of ten years. It attracted literary men such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder and the reigning dukes of Gotha and Weimar. In 1777 Karl Theodor became ruler of Bavaria.He was a proponent of Enlightened Despotism and his government banned all secret societies including the Illuminati. Internal rupture and panic over succession preceded its downfall, which was affected by the Secular Edict made by the Bavarian government. ] The March 2, 1785 edict â€Å"seems to have been deathblow to the Illuminati in Bavaria. † Weishaupt had fled and documents and internal correspondences, seized in 1786 and 1787, were subsequently published by the government in 1787. Von Zwack's home was searched to disclose much of the group's literature. There are also theories about Tupac faking his death, and he is still alive.The 7 Day Theory is an idea pushed by the proponents that attempt to find the smallest details of any situation in order to provide more support for the conspiracy. This evidence is very disputable, because some will slightly alter details in order to gain the evidence needed. Deep personal research is suggested when inspecting the details of the 7 Day Theory. The repetition of an occurrence of numbers can happen anytime. The Number 23, a movie from New Line Cinema, mentioned multiple occurrences of the number 23. Using these occurrences of numbers for support is weak and quite silly.Some believers of the conspiracy favor to point out the 7 Day Theory. A main focus of that is the title of one of his albums, The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory. Many parts of his life and death bring about suspicion that focuses on the number 7. It is noticed that Tupac survived 7 days after he was shot. He was shot on the 7th of September and managed to stay alive until the 13th. That is seven days if you include the day he was shot. Others also notice that he was officially announced dead at 4:03 p. m. As we know, four plus three equals seven. Tupac, aka Makaveli, died at the age 25.His age of death is another key factor that relates two numbers adding up to 7. Two plus five happens to equal seven. Another coincidence that is suspect to this significance of 7 is the release date of All Eyez on Me. Tupac died exactly seven months after the release of the album, which was released on February 13, 1996. Tupac died on September 13, 1996 (Scott, 1997). One of the major components of the conspiracy theories is the lyrics of Tupac’s songs. Many believe that Pac left us clues about, and even foretelling, his death. By examining bits and pieces of his music, conspiracists hope to extract a deeper meaning to them as a whole.One song he wrote was named: â€Å"Ambitionz az a Ridah†, the lyrics were: â€Å"Blast me but they didn't finish, didn't diminish my powers so now I'm back to be a muthaf*&kin' menace, they cowards that’s why they tried to set me up, had b*tch a*s niggas on my team so indeed they wet me up, but I’m back reincarnated. † Many believers take this statement to suggest Tupac was reincarnated as Makaveli. Another song he wrote was â€Å"Blasphemy†, the lyrics were: â€Å"I'm contemplating thoughts, wondering the thought to go, Brotha getting shot coming back resurrected. † Here, a direct statement about coming back is made.One last song was â€Å"Only Fear of Death†, the lyrics were: â€Å"Never will I die, I'll be back. † Here is a third instance in which Tupac i mplies his resurrection. On multiple accounts, he mentions a plot but never specifies his plan of action. There are many conspiracy theories concerning the life and death of Tupac Shakur. Many say the Illiminati killed him, and then there’s theriors that he faked his death, and he is living in cuba. Citations â€Å"BallerStatus. com. † BallerStatus. com. Ronnie Gamble, 24 Aug. 2009. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. .Houston, Akil. â€Å"Shakur, Tupac. † Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century. Ed. Paul FinkelmanNew York: Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford African American Studies Center. Fri Nov 02 00:59:44 EDT 2012. . Illuminati History Secrets. † Illuminati History. Illuminati History, 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. ;http://www. illuminatihistory. net/;. â€Å"Illuminati. † Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Oct. 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. ;http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Illuminati;.